The Islamic Movement (IM) proved that it is a crucial element in the local political equations in many Arab countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Yemen, Syria, Tunisia, Palestine, Iraq and others. It became a cornerstone in the revolutions of the Arab spring where the Muslim Brotherhood specifically arrived in power through fair and legitimate elections in Egypt, Tunisia, and before that in Palestine. Since the election victory of the IM, there has been violence aimed at the IM and their supporters to exclude them from the political scene resulting in turbulence and volatility in the Middle East as a whole. The article tries to examine the life cycle of the IM under the current circumstances and to discuss the need for a holistic renewal in the IM intellectual, strategic, structural, ethical and practical construction to cope with the radical political and societal changes in the region as a result of the Arab Spring. This article suggests five key fundamental changes that must be addressed.
For the full article, please go to academia.edu at the following link:
Turkey is playing a strategic role in the Middle East due to many factors. Historically, the Ottoman Empire was controlling most of what is now called Middle East countries and many other Islamic countries which created long and strong relationship with Turkey. Geographically, Turkey occupies a strategic position between Europe and Asia. It is the ceiling of the Arab countries from the north. Its coasts are extended from the black sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover it has long boarders with Iraq and Iran. Therefore, Turkey is very well qualified to play a strategic role in the Area.
This paper provides a strategic analysis to the Iraqi complexity from the Turkish perspective.
http://goo.gl/lHWoQm Continue reading Analyzing Iraq’s complexity from Turkey’s strategic perspective
The current era is witnessing serious geopolitical changes during the Arab spring and its waves in the Arab countries specifically. This geopolitics change is reflecting serious geostrategic changes on the OIC (Organization of Islamic Countries) as well, which causes serious impacts on all OIC internally and externally. Under the forum theme “Unity in diversity: Source of power”, the paper introduces some crucial geostrategic concepts to develop common national and regional understanding in order to avoid geostrategic confrontation, and to exploit the strategic opportunities. The paper calls for geostrategic interests’ integration management, and for reaching the point of geostrategic equilibrium so as to start developing, what is called by the writer, geostrategic regional initiatives. This paper will propose crucial strategic imperatives within the context of the complex dynamic of the Arab spring’s transitional period and its impact on the region in order to support the unity of the OIC countries in this dilemma.
Continue reading Crucial Geostrategic Concepts towards Achieving Strategic Harmony amongst OIC Countries
Part II: Geostrategic Problems on the Ground
There are many serious geopolitical problems on the ground in Middle East countries, such as the absence of democracy, dialogue, tolerance, art of dispute, and sectarian divisions. Moreover, the Middle east suffers from multiple geopolitical problems, such as: national political problems, forced ideology, lack of common grounds in the same country, not accepting the others’ opinion, exclusion and marginalization, misconceptions, evoking and calling to minds historical confrontations. These serious geopolitical problems generate serious geostrategic issues and crisis which lead to serious strategic goals confrontation. Such geostrategic confrontations create easy access for international intervention in the region under the need of protection, and achieving strategic equilibrium with opponents in the area.
The geostrategic impact is prone to the Middle East area not only recently, but since the early days before Islam was in the region as well. For instance, early in the 19th century, Iran was subjected to the Russian-UK great game in the Middle East. Eventually, in 1907 Iran territory was divided into three parts. In 1921, Tehran and Moscow signed a treaty of friendship. Moscow retained the right to intervene in Iran in any event of foreign attack, and that the Soviet would support Tehran in fighting the separatists in the country’s north. In 1937, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, and Turkey founded the Sadabad pact, which settled several border disputes and thus erased potential sources of conflict.
After World War II, SU (Soviet Union) and Iran agreed to grant SU several oil concessions and to recognize the autonomy of Azerbaijan. In return, Moscow withdrew its troops from Iran in 1946. UK, whose BP oil company controlled the majority of Iranian oil reserves, refused to give up its influence on the domestic policy of Iran. A new oil treaty was signed in 1949 with BP (Inat & Yesitlas, 2005). Although the elections in Gaza strip was supervised by the international community in 2006; USA and EU rejected the Hamas government as an explicit stance to refuse the political Islam, and to reject the participation of Islamic parties in formulating the geostrategy in the region.